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Curr Opin Immunol. 2002 Dec;14(6):779-82.

New regulatory co-receptors: inducible co-stimulator and PD-1.

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Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.


Autoreactive lymphocytes are suppressed in healthy individuals by so-called peripheral tolerance. Accumulating evidence indicates that co-receptor signaling plays a pivotal role in the regulation of autoreactive lymphocytes. The positive regulatory co-receptors CD28 and inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) transduce stimulatory cosignals, whereas the negative regulatory co-stimulators CTLA-4 and PD-1 are critical for the regulation of peripheral tolerance and autoimmunity. PD-1 deficient mice develop lupus-like glomerulonephritis and arthritis on a C57Bl/6 background and autoimmune-dilated cardiomyopathy on a BALB/c background.

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