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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002 Nov;110(6):1417-29.

Computer-assisted secondary reconstruction of unilateral posttraumatic orbital deformity.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg, Germany.


Until now, computer-assisted surgery has not been practiced as part of the surgical routine of posttraumatic orbital reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a navigation system for computer-assisted preoperative planning with virtual reconstruction to obtain symmetry of the orbits and intraoperative control of virtual contours in comparison with the clinically achieved surgical results. A further objective of the computer-assisted orbital analysis was to use an ideal measurement for the two-dimensional and three-dimensional changes following orbital reconstruction and to check the equality of the postoperative values for the affected orbits in comparison with those of the unaffected sides. Patients with unilateral posttraumatic orbital defects (n = 18) underwent computer-assisted surgery and preoperative planning using a spiral computed tomography database. Surgical procedures were preplanned with virtual correction by mirroring an individually defined three-dimensional segment from the unaffected side onto the deformed side, creating an ideal unilateral reconstruction. These computer-models were intraoperatively used as virtual templates to navigate the preplanned contours and the globe projection using the Stryker-Leibinger navigation system. Individual noninvasive registration with an overall inaccuracy of approximately 1 mm was achieved by using a maxillary occlusal splint with four markers. The mirroring of the unaffected side allowed an ideal virtual reconstruction. A mean decrease in enlarged orbital volume of 4.0 (SD +/- 1.9) cm was achieved, as was a mean increase in the sagittal globe projection of 5.88 (SD +/- 2.98) mm. With a paired Student test, the decrease between the preoperative and postoperative differences of the affected and unaffected sides was proved significant for orbital volume, globe projection, and computed tomography-based Hertel scale changes (p < 0.01). In 15 of 18 cases, simultaneous malar bone advancement resulted primarily in an additional increase in orbital volume before intraorbital augmentation with calvarial split-bone grafts could be performed. Intraorbital bony augmentation included one (n = 1), two (n = 7), three (n = 8), and all four (n = 2) orbital walls. Computer-assisted preoperative planning enables the surgeon to predict reconstructive surgical steps before the operation. Highly vulnerable structures such as the optic nerve can be detected and avoided intraoperatively, and virtually preplanned bone graft positions and/or orbital frame contours can be checked. Computer-assisted preoperative planning and surgery thus advance the difficult surgical field of orbital reconstruction, particularly through a greater exploitation of radiologic information without additional radiation to the patient.

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