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Cell. 2002 Oct 18;111(2):265-80.

Evidence that Armadillo transduces wingless by mediating nuclear export or cytosolic activation of Pangolin.

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Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Erratum in

  • Cell. 2003 Jul 25;114(2):267.


Secreted proteins of the Wnt family have profound organizing roles during animal development and are transduced via the activities of the Frizzled (Fz) class of transmembrane receptors and the TCF/LEF/Pangolin class of transcription factors. beta-catenins, including Drosophila Armadillo (Arm), link activation of Fz at the cell surface to transcriptional regulation by TCF in the nucleus. The consensus view is that Wnt signaling induces beta-catenin to enter the nucleus and combine with TCF to form a transcription factor complex in which TCF binds DNA and the C-terminal domain of beta-catenin activates transcription. Here, we present findings, which challenge this view and suggest instead that beta-catenin may transduce Wnt signals by exporting TCF from the nucleus or activating it in the cytoplasm.

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