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Clin Chem. 2002 Nov;48(11):1938-45.

Electrophoretic variant of a lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and selective promoter methylation of the LDHA gene in a human retinoblastoma cell line.

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1
Department of Laboratory Medicine,Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan. mmaekawa@hama-med.ac.jp

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Lactate dehydrogenase (LD), a tetrameric product of the genes LDHA and LDHB, may be increased in sera of cancer patients. A variant isoenzyme with electrophoretic mobility between LD2 and LD3 (LD2ex) has been described in patients, but its molecular nature is largely unknown.

METHODS:

A newly established retinoblastoma cell line, NCC-RbC-51 (R51), showed an isoenzyme pattern with only two bands, LD1 and LD2ex. We investigated the isoenzymes by Northern blot, Western blot, and methylation analysis and PCR.

RESULTS:

Northern blot analysis revealed that R51 cells expressed no wild-type/somatic LDHA mRNA, but did express a small amount of LDHA-related mRNA with a slightly higher molecular mass. Western blot analysis confirmed the anti-LDHA-reactive protein with a 3-kDa higher molecular mass. Treatment of R51 cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored the expression of the LD2, -3, -4, and -5 isoenzymes. PCR analysis of sodium bisulfite-treated genomic DNA revealed that the CpG island in the promoter region around exon a of the LDHA gene was completely methylated. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis and direct sequencing revealed that R51 cells expressed a RNA with the sequence of the human homolog of a murine testis-specific variant that has exon 0 as the 5' noncoding sequence. LDHB was expressed normally in R51 cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

The somatic LDHA in R51 cells is transcriptionally silenced by promoter hypermethylation around exon a, leaving only LDHB to be expressed normally and a testis-specific variant transcript of LDHA containing exon 0. LD2ex possibly results from tetramerization of three wild-type LDHB molecules and one variant LDHA product.

PMID:
12406979
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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