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J Infect Dis. 2002 Nov 15;186(10):1396-402. Epub 2002 Oct 21.

Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus type 16 infection in the United States.

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  • 1Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.


Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 accounts for about half of cervical cancers worldwide. This study investigated the seroepidemiology of HPV-16 infection in the United States by using a population-based survey. Serum samples and questionnaire data were collected from 1991 to 1994 for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. HPV-16-specific IgG antibody was detected by use of an HPV-16 virus-like particle ELISA. HPV-16 seropositivity in the US population aged 12-59 years was 13.0% (95% confidence interval, 11.5%-14.7%). Seroprevalence was higher in women (17.9%) than in men (7.9%). Age, race/ethnicity, and number of lifetime sex partners were associated with HPV seropositivity in women. Race/ethnicity, age at first intercourse, urban/nonurban residence, years of sexual activity, and having had sex with a man were associated with HPV seropositivity in men. Information on HPV-16 seroepidemiology will be important for designing prevention efforts including vaccine programs.

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