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Trends Immunol. 2002 Nov;23(11):549-55.

Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes.

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1
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Eritrea 62, I-20157 Milan, Italy. mantovani@marionegri.it

Abstract

Mononuclear phagocytes are versatile cells that can express different functional programs in response to microenvironmental signals. Fully polarized M1 and M2 (or alternatively activated) macrophages are the extremes of a continuum of functional states. Macrophages that infiltrate tumor tissues are driven by tumor-derived and T cell-derived cytokines to acquire a polarized M2 phenotype. These functionally polarized cells, and similarly oriented or immature dendritic cells present in tumors, have a key role in subversion of adaptive immunity and in inflammatory circuits that promote tumor growth and progression.

PMID:
12401408
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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