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Physiol Genomics. 2002 Dec 3;11(3):263-72. Epub 2002 Dec 3.

Time course of skeletal muscle repair and gene expression following acute hind limb ischemia in mice.

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Department of Cardiovascular Research, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.


DNA microarrays were used to measure the time course of gene expression during skeletal muscle damage and regeneration in mice following femoral artery ligation (FAL). We found 1,289 known sequences were differentially expressed between the FAL and control groups. Gene expression peaked on day 3, and the functional cluster "inflammation" contained the greatest number of genes. Muscle function was depressed for 3 days postligation, but returned to normal by day 7. Decreased muscle function was accompanied by reduced expression of genes involved in mitochondrial energy production, muscle contraction, and calcium handling. The induction of MyoD on day 1 denoted the beginning of muscle regeneration and was followed by the reemergence of the embryonic forms of muscle contractile proteins, which peaked at day 7. Transcriptional analysis indicated that the ischemic skeletal muscle may transition through a functional adaptation stage with recovery of contractile force prior to full regeneration. Several members of the insulin-like growth factor axis were coordinately induced in a time frame consistent with their playing a role in the regenerative process.

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