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Blood. 2003 Feb 15;101(4):1409-15. Epub 2002 Oct 17.

Identification of P2Y12-dependent and -independent mechanisms of glycoprotein VI-mediated Rap1 activation in platelets.

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Department of Pharmacology, Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599, USA.


Glycoprotein (GP) VI is a critical platelet collagen receptor, yet the steps involved in GPVI-mediated platelet activation remain incompletely understood. Because activation of Rap1, an abundant small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) in platelets, contributes to integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, we asked whether and how GPVI signaling activates Rap1 in platelets. Here we show that platelet Rap1 is robustly activated upon addition of convulxin, a GPVI-specific agonist. Using a reconstituted system in RBL-2H3 cells, we found that GPVI-mediated Rap1 activation is dependent on FcRgamma but independent of another platelet collagen receptor, alpha(2)beta(1). Interestingly, GPVI-mediated Rap1 activation in human platelets is largely dependent on adenosine diphosphate (ADP) signaling through the P2Y(12) and not the P2Y(1) receptor. However, experiments with specific ADP receptor antagonists and platelets from knockout mice deficient in P2Y(1) or the P2Y(12)-associated G-protein, Galphai(2), indicate that human and murine platelets also have a significant P2Y(12)-independent component of GPVI-mediated Rap1 activation. The P2Y(12)-independent component is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and is augmented by epinephrine-mediated signaling. P2Y(12)-dependent and -independent components are also observed in GPVI-mediated platelet aggregation, further supporting a role for Rap1 in aggregation. These results define mechanisms of GPVI-mediated platelet activation and implicate Rap1 as a key signaling protein in GPVI-induced platelet signaling.

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