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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003 Feb;284(2):R574-85. Epub 2002 Oct 10.

COX-2 and prostanoid expression in micturition pathways after cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in the rat.

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  • 1Departments of Neurology, Anatomy and Neurobiology, and Surgery, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA.


The purpose of this study was to determine the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its metabolites in lower urinary tract function after induction of acute (4 h), intermediate (48 h), or chronic (10 day) cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Bladders were harvested from euthanized female rats for analyses. Conscious cystometry was used to assess the effects of a COX-2-specific inhibitor, 5,5-dimethyl-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(4-methylsulfonyl)phenyl2(5H)-furanone (DFU, 5 mg/kg sc), a disubstituted furanone, in CYP-induced cystitis. COX-2 mRNA was increased in inflamed bladders after acute (12-fold) and chronic (9-fold) treatment. COX-2 protein expression in inflamed bladders paralleled COX-2 mRNA expression. Prostaglandin D2-methoxime expression in the bladder was significantly (P < or = 0.01) increased in acute (3-fold) and chronic (5.5-fold) cystitis. Prostaglandin E2 was significantly (P < or = 0.01) increased (2-fold) in the bladder with intermediate (1.7-fold) and chronic (2.6-fold) cystitis. COX-2-immunoreactive cell profiles were distributed throughout the inflamed bladder and coexpressed histamine immunoreactivity. Conscious cystometry in rats treated with CYP + DFU showed increased micturition intervals 4 and 48 h after CYP treatment and decreased intravesical pressures during filling and micturition compared with rats treated with CYP + vehicle. These studies suggest an involvement of urinary bladder COX-2 and its metabolites in altered micturition reflexes with CYP-induced cystitis.

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