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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Sep;50(9):1476-83.

Translating clinical research into practice: a randomized controlled trial of exercise and incontinence care with nursing home residents.

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UCLA Multicampus Program in Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Los Angeles, California 91335, USA.



To examine clinical outcomes and describe the staffing requirements of an incontinence and exercise intervention.


Randomized controlled trial with blinded assessments of outcomes at three points over 8 months.


Four nursing homes.


Two hundred fifty-six incontinent residents.


Research staff provided the intervention, which integrated incontinence care and exercise every 2 hours from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. 5 days a week.


Average and maximum distance walked or wheeled, level of assistance required to stand, maximum pounds lifted by arms, fecal and urinary incontinence frequency, and time required to implement intervention.


Intervention residents maintained or improved performance whereas the control group's performance declined on 14 of 15 outcome measures. Repeated measures analysis of variance group-by-time significance levels ranged from P <.0001 to.05. The mean time required to implement the intervention each time care was provided was 20.7 +/- 7.2 minutes. We estimate that a work assignment of approximately five residents to one aide would be necessary to provide this intervention.


The incontinence care and exercise intervention resulted in significant improvement for most residents, and most who could be reliably interviewed expressed a preference for such care. Fundamental changes in the staffing of most nursing homes will be necessary to translate efficacious clinical interventions into everyday practice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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