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J Am Chem Soc. 2002 Oct 16;124(41):12118-28.

Inhibitor scaffolds as new allele specific kinase substrates.

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1
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Box 0450, University of California- San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

Abstract

The elucidation of protein kinase signaling networks is challenging due to the large size of the protein kinase superfamily (>500 human kinases). Here we describe a new class of orthogonal triphosphate substrate analogues for the direct labeling of analogue-specific kinase protein targets. These analogues were constructed as derivatives of the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1 and were designed based on the crystal structures of PP1 bound to HCK and N(6)-(benzyl)-ADP bound to c-Src (T338G). 3-Benzylpyrazolopyrimidine triphosphate (3-benzyl-PPTP) proved to be a substrate for a mutant of the MAP kinase p38 (p38-T106G/A157L/L167A). 3-Benzyl-PPTP was preferred by v-Src (T338G) (k(cat)/K(M) = 3.2 x 10(6) min(-)(1) M(-)(1)) over ATP or the previously described ATP analogue, N(6) (benzyl) ATP. For the kinase CDK2 (F80G)/cyclin E, 3-benzyl-PPTP demonstrated catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(M) = 2.6 x 10(4) min(-)(1) M(-)(1)) comparable to ATP (k(cat)/K(M) = 5.0 x 10(4) min(-)(1) M(-)(1)) largely due to a significantly better K(M) (6.4 microM vs 530 microM). In kinase protein substrate labeling experiments both 3-benzyl-PPTP and 3-phenyl-PPTP prove to be over 4 times more orthogonal than N(6)-(benzyl)-ATP with respect to the wild-type kinases found in murine spleenocyte cell lysates. These experiments also demonstrate that [gamma-(32)P]-3-benzyl-PPTP is an excellent phosphodonor for labeling the direct protein substrates of CDK2 (F80G)/E in murine spleenocyte cell lysates, even while competing with cellular levels (4 mM) of unlabeled ATP. The fact that this new more highly orthogonal nucleotide is accepted by three widely divergent kinases studied here suggests that it is likely to be generalizable across the entire kinase superfamily.

PMID:
12371851
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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