Send to

Choose Destination
Neural Netw. 2002 Jun-Jul;15(4-6):495-506.

Metalearning and neuromodulation.

Author information

ATR Human Information Science Laboratories, CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kyoto.


This paper presents a computational theory on the roles of the ascending neuromodulatory systems from the viewpoint that they mediate the global signals that regulate the distributed learning mechanisms in the brain. Based on the review of experimental data and theoretical models, it is proposed that dopamine signals the error in reward prediction, serotonin controls the time scale of reward prediction, noradrenaline controls the randomness in action selection, and acetylcholine controls the speed of memory update. The possible interactions between those neuromodulators and the environment are predicted on the basis of computational theory of metalearning.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center