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Urol Clin North Am. 2002 May;29(2):329-39.

Complications of hypospadias repair.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Hypospadias is one of the most frequently encountered congenital malformations of the genitourinary system. The incidence in studies of large populations has been reported to be from 1 to 8 per 1000 male births. For centuries the imagination and creativity of surgeons has been challenged to create a phallus that is both functional and cosmetic. Over the last 30 years numerous new operations and techniques have been developed with the objective of achieving improved cosmetic results with minimal complications.

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