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Electrophoresis. 2002 Sep;23(18):3143-8.

Integration of capillary isoelectric focusing with capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography for two-dimensional proteomics separation.

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1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Abstract

On-line combination of capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography (CRPLC) is developed using a microinjector as the interface for performing two-dimensional (2-D) protein/peptide separations of complex protein mixtures. The focusing effect of CIEF not only contributes to a high-resolution protein/peptide separation, but also may permit the analysis of low-abundance proteins with a typical concentration factor of 50-100 times. The preparative capabilities of CIEF are much larger than most of capillary-based electrokinetic separation techniques since the entire capillary is initially filled with a solution containing proteins/peptides and carrier ampholytes for the creation of a pH gradient inside the capillary. The focused peptides which have a similar pI are coinjected into the second separation dimension and further resolved by their differences in hydrophobicity. The resolving power of combined CIEF-CRPLC system is demonstrated using the soluble fraction of Drosophila salivary glands taken from a period beginning before steroid-triggered programmed cell death and extending to its completion. The separation mechanisms of CIEF and CRPLC are completely orthogonal and the overall peak capacity is estimated to be around approximately 1800 over a run time of less than 8 h. Significant enhancement in the separation peak capacity can be realized by further increasing the number of CIEF fractions and/or slowing the solvent gradient in CRPLC, however, at the expense of overall analysis time. The results of our preliminary studies display significant differences in the separation profiles of peptide samples obtained from salivary glands of animals staged at the 6 and 12 h following puparium formation.

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