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Genes Cells. 2002 Sep;7(9):949-60.

Identification of a BMP-responsive element in Id1, the gene for inhibition of myogenesis.

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Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan.



Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) stimulates osteoblast differentiation, but inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. BMP-2 induces transcription of Id1, an inhibitor for myogenesis, within 1 h in the cells. To examine the molecular mechanism of the action of BMP-2, we analysed a BMP-2-responsive element (BRE) in the 5' flanking region of the human Id1 gene.


A GC-rich region between -985 bp and -957 bp of the human Id1 gene was identified as a BRE. The BRE containing promoter activity was stimulated by BMP-2 or by constitutively active BMP receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB). The stimulation was blocked by co-transfecting with dominant negative BMPR-IA or Smad7. A unique DNA-protein complex was induced in response to BMP-2 on the BRE. The complex induced by BMP-2 contained Smad1 and Smad4, possibly as a complex of both Smads. BMP-2 failed to stimulate the expression of Id1 mRNA in Smad4-deficient cells. Over-expression of Smad4, but not Smad1, stimulated the Id1 reporter activity and the expression of endogenous Id1 mRNA in Smad4-deficient cells.


Signalling of BMP-2 to stimulate the expression of Id1 would be transduced by BMPR-IA and mediated by Smad1 and Smad4, both of which form a complex on the 29 bp GC-rich element.

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