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Endocrinology. 2002 Oct;143(10):3994-4006.

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor 2 deficiency in mice results in growth retardation and increased basal metabolic rate.

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Division of Endocrine Research, Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.


Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) are two closely related peptides that bind two homologous G protein-coupled receptors, VIP/PACAP receptor 1 (VPAC1R) and VIP/PACAP receptor II (VPAC2R), with equally high affinity. Recent reports suggest that VPAC2R plays a role in circadian rhythm and T cell functions. To further elucidate the functional activities of VPAC2R, we generated VPAC2R-deficient mice by deleting exons VIII-X of the VPAC2R gene. The VPAC2R-deficient mice showed retarded growth and had reduced serum IGF-I levels compared with gender-matched, wild-type siblings. The mutant mice appeared healthy and fertile at a young adult age. However, older male mutant mice exhibited diffuse seminiferous tubular degeneration with hypospermia and reduced fertility rate. The mutant mice appeared to have an increase in insulin sensitivity. VPAC2R-deficient mice had increased lean mass and decreased fat mass with reduced serum leptin levels. Indirect calorimetry experiments showed that the respiratory quotient values immediately following the transition into the dark cycle were significantly higher in male knockout mice for about 4 h. Additionally, male and female VPAC2R-deficient mice presented an increased basal metabolic rate (23% and 10%, respectively) compared with their wild-type siblings. Our results suggest that VPAC2R plays an important role in growth, basal energy expenditure, and male reproductive functions.

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