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Cancer Treat Rev. 2002 Jun;28(3):137-40.

Cancer and thromboembolic disease: pathogenic mechanisms.

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Hamilton Health Sciences, Henderson Site, Ont, Canada L8V 1C3.


Almost all types of cancer are associated with an activation of coagulation. However, elevation of haemostatic markers of coagulation does not predict venous thrombosis. Multiple and interdependent processes between the tumour and the patient induce a hypercoagulable state. Tumour procoagulant activity, host inflammatory responses and extrinsic factors are involved. Tumour cells express the procoagulants, tissue factor and cancer procoagulant. They also release inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor, substances that enhance procoagulant activity and angiogenesis. Tumour-induced coagulation is intrinsically involved with tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis.

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