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Brain Res. 2002 Sep 27;951(1):113-20.

Concurrent formation of peroxynitrite with the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the brain during middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Health Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Abstract

Peroxynitrite is assumed to play a crucial role in brain damage associated with the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). The purpose of this study is to examine time-dependent changes of nitrite and nitrate (NOx) concentration in the circulation, and peroxynitrite formation as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the penumbra of rat brains during transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) of Wistar rat for 2 h and reperfusion for 4-70 h. NOx concentration in the circulation was continuously monitored at the right jugular vein by microdialysis. The expression of iNOS was detected at 22-70 h after reperfusion in vascular walls and the cortex. Nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite, appeared 4 h after reperfusion in the cortex, increasing substantially at 22-46 h in vascular walls. NOx level in dialysate increased immediately after MCAO. After a gradual decrease, the level increased again 4 h after reperfusion, reaching a maximum at 46 h. Brain myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was not detected 4 h after reperfusion, but greatly increased at 22 h and then decreased. These results suggest that a marked increase of NOx level in the circulation might reflect the expression of iNOS, while neuronal NOS may contribute to peroxynitrite formation in the cortex observed at an earlier phase of reperfusion. This study indicates that monitoring NOx level in the circulation serves to assess the progress of stroke, and to determine appropriate therapeutic measures.

PMID:
12231464
DOI:
10.1016/s0006-8993(02)03145-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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