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Eur J Neurol. 2002 Sep;9(5):441-7.

Myotonic dystrophy type 2.

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Neurologisches Krankenhaus Rosenhügel, Vienna, Austria.


Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a clinically but not genetically heterogeneous, multisystem disorder, that is clinically similar to, but distinct from myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Initially, different phenotypes of DM2 were described by Ricker (proximal myotonic myopathy, PROMM), Ranum (myotonic dystrophy 2, DM2) and Udd (proximal myotonic dystrophy, PDM). Clinical features these three phenotypes had in common were diffuse, proximal or distal weakness, wasting, myotonia, cataract, cerebral, endocrine and cardiac abnormalities. Initially, the clinical differences between DM1 and PROMM seemed unmistakable, but meanwhile it has become apparent that the clinical differences between these entities are blurring. In 1999, Day et al., Meola et al. and Ricker et al. mapped the mutated gene of all three phenotypes to chromosome 3q. In 2001, the three different phenotypes were found to rely on the same mutation in the ZNF9 gene on chromosome 3q21.3. Although DM2 may be clinically heterogeneous, it is by result of a mutation in a single gene. The mutation responsible for DM2 is a CCTG-repeat expansion of 75-11 000 repeats in intron 1 of the ZNF9 gene on chromosome 3q21.3. Because of the clinical heterogeneity, the diagnosis of DM2 should rely on DNA analysis alone.

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