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Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2002 Oct;9(1):29-38.

The natural history of sex-linked recessive dystonia parkinsonism of Panay, Philippines (XDP).

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Office of the Executive Director, Child Neuroscience Division, Department of Health, Philippine Children's Medical Center, Quezon Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines.


Sex-linked dystonia parkinsonism (XDP) was reported by Lee et al. in 1975 occurring endemically in Panay, Philippines. It is an adult onset, sex-linked, predominantly male, severe, progressive movement disorder with high penetrance and a high frequency of generalization. The movement disorder is characterized by dystonic movements usually starting in the third or fourth decade, focal at the onset, spreading to generalization within 2-5 years. The dystonia co-exist or is replaced by parkinsonism usually beyond the 10th year of illness. As of June 2001, 376 XDP cases have been registered. One hundred and fifteen cases have died. The prevalence of XDP in the island of Panay is 5.24 per 100,000; 0.34/100,000 in the general population. The prevalence varies in the different provinces; it is highest in Capiz at 18.88/100,000, 7.46/100,000 in Aklan, 1.28 in Iloilo and 0.83 in Antique. The 376 cases are from 188 families and 92% of cases have positive family history. Ninety-nine percent of the cases are males. The mean age of onset is 39.48 years. Duration of illness is 12.95 years. Ninety-four percent of patients initially manifest with dystonic symptoms, while only 6% present with Parkinsonian traits. Among those presenting with dystonia, the initial presentation is in the lower extremities in 33%, craniofacial in 27%, cervical and shoulder in 25%, upper extremities in 14%, and trunk in 1%. Regardless of the site of onset, the dystonia spreads in 98% and generalizes within 5 years in 84%. Neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) was done in 16 patients. In the patients who have just manifested the disease usually when dystonia predominates and parkinsonism is absent. MRI showed minimal atrophy of the caudate and putamen or subtle putaminal signal abnormality. In the late course, where Parkinsonism predominates, severe atrophy of the caudate and putamen as well as marked increase in signal abnormality are seen. There are six autopsied cases of XDP. Neuropathology revealed marked atrophy of the caudate and putamen mostly in the cases with longstanding illness. The sex-linked pattern of inheritance has been established. Genetic studies have located the affected gene (DYT3) to Xq13.1. Nemeth's group has mapped the XDP gene to a <350 kb locus in the DXS 7117-DX 559 region. To date, no treatment has been proven consistently effective.

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