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Clin Transpl. 2001:247-69.

Annual trends and triple therapy--1991-2000.

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Terasaki Foundation Laboratory, Los Angeles, CA, USA.


1. Although the number of cadaver donor transplants did not increase substantially over the past 10 years, unrelated living donor grafts increased from 153 in 1991 to 1,661 through 2000. Use of spousal and other unrelated donor organs contributed to this increase. There was a modest increase in living-related donor transplants from 2,328 in 1991 to 3,451 in 2000. 2. Cadaver donor graft survival at one year improved from 84% in 1991 to 90% in 2000. In contrast, one-year graft survival of living donor transplants only improved from 93% in 1991 to 95% in 2000. 3. Throughout the 10-year period, approximately 13% of transplants were repeat transplants from cadaver donors and roughly 8% were regrafts from live donors. 4. Cadaver donor transplants into White recipients declined from 68% in 1991 to 60% in 2000. For living donors, the percentage of White patients remained constant at about 70%. 5. Graft survival in patients of all races was about equal at one year but diverged at 3 years, with Asians having the highest and Blacks having the lowest 3-year graft survival rates. 6. Average donor age increased from 31.7 in 1991 to 36 in 2000 for cadaveric donor transplants and 37.9 in 1991 to 40.4 in 2000 for living donor transplants. Cadaveric kidneys from donors older than 50 years of age yielded significantly lower 3-year graft survival. 7. Average recipient age for cadaveric donor transplants increased from 42.1 in 1991 to 46.8 in 2000. The average recipient age for living donor transplants also increased steadily from 33.7 in 1991 to 42.9 in 2000. There was relatively little effect on graft survival rates for advanced age recipients. 8. The percentage of sensitized recipients receiving cadaver donor grafts declined from 27% in 1991 to 21% in 2000. Similarly, sensitized recipients receiving living donor grafts decreased from 17% in 1991 to 13% in 2000. Graft survival in patients with more than 50% PRA was lower at 3 years for patients receiving cadaveric donor grafts. Highly sensitized patients receiving living donor grafts had graft survival rates similar to those who were not sensitized. 9. Cold ischemia times decreased from an average of 24.2 hours in 1991 to 18.9 hours in 2000. Improved graft survival rates over those 10 years were noted in all groups, and even cold ischemia times more than 36 hours yielded 3-year graft survivals comparable to those with lower cold ischemia times in 1998. 10. The need for dialysis has remained constant at about 23% over the last 10 years for patients receiving kidneys from cadaveric donors. The rate of dialysis for patients receiving kidneys from living donors was about 5% for each of the 10 years examined. First day anuria increased from 11% in 1991 to 16% in 2000 for cadaver donor transplants and 3% in 1999 to 5% in 2000 for living donor grafts. 11. Cadaveric donor patients requiring dialysis had a 3-year graft survival rate of 63% if there was no first day anuria and 56% if they had first day anuria. This is in contrast to 80% 3-year graft survival for those with immediate diuresis and no need for dialysis. The 3-year graft survival rate for those receiving living donor grafts and needing dialysis was 58% if they had first day diuresis and 41% if they ware anuric on the first day. Conversely, those who had first day function and did not require dialysis had 89% 3-year graft survival. 12. Among the patients receiving cadaveric grafts with first day diuresis there was a marked reduction in those with rejection, from 21% in 1991 to 5% in 2000. Similarly, for this type of patient receiving living donor grafts, the reduction was 17% in 1991 to 5% in 2000. However, graft survival among these patients did not change significantly. The greatest improvement was noted in those with first day anuria and no rejection. 13. Patients who did not require dialysis, and had rejection prior to discharge decreased markedly from 17% in 1991 to 3% in 2000 in those receiving cadaveric grafts and 15% in 1991 to 3.9% in 2000 for those receiving living donors. Graft survival of cadaveric transplants in those needing dialysis, with and without rejection, improved the most in the 10 year period. 14. Hospitalization days for cadaveric transplant recipients were reduced from 19 days in 1991 to 10 days in 2000 and 16 days in 1991 to 8 days in 2000 for recipients of living donor grafts. There was an increase in discharge serum creatinine values from 2.3 mg/dl in 1991 to 3.3 mg/dl in 2000 for cadaver donor grafts. 15. Double therapy was utilized for about 15% of cadaveric and living donors. There was a sharp increase in induction therapy, peaking at 51% in 1994 and decreasing to 5% by 2000 for cadaveric donor transplants. Induction did not improve graft survival for either cadaver or living donor transplant recipients. 16. Triple therapy improved graft survival of White and Black patients, but did not affect the half-lives in either race. 17. The lower graft survival from older donors was not affected by triple therapy for cadaver donor transplants. Triple therapy removed the donor age effect for recipients of living donor grafts. 18. Triple therapy practically eliminated the effect of sensitization for cadaveric donor grafts. Both double and triple therapy virtually eliminated the sensitization effect for living donors. 19. Triple therapy significantly improved the survival of kidneys with more than 36 hours cold ischemia time so that 3-year graft survival was 76% at 3 years compared with 81% for kidneys stored 1-12 hours. 20. Triple therapy improved the 3-year graft survival of kidneys with first day anuria from 50% for double therapy to 69% for triple therapy in cadaver donor transplants. For living donor transplants, there was a similar improvement from 57% with double therapy to 72% with triple therapy. 21. Triple therapy improved the 3-year cadaveric graft survival rate of kidneys requiring dialysis from 51% with double therapy to 67% for triple therapy. There was a similar improvement for living donors needing dialysis from 37% to 61% at 3 years.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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