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J Pharm Sci. 2002 Sep;91(9):2076-89.

Design, development, physicochemical, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of transdermal patches containing diclofenac diethylammonium salt.

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University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India.


In this study, matrix-type transdermal patches containing diclofenac diethylamine were prepared using different ratios of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethylcellulose (EC) by solvent evaporation technique. The drug matrix film of PVP and EC was casted on a polyvinylalcohol backing membrane. All the prepared formulations were subjected to physical studies (moisture content, moisture uptake, and flatness), in vitro release studies and in vitro skin permeation studies. In vitro permeation studies were performed across cadaver skin using a modified diffusion cell. Variations in drug release profiles among the formulations studied were observed. Based on a physicochemical and in vitro skin permeation study, formulation PA4 (PVP/EC, 1:2) and PA5 (PVP/EC, 1:5) were chosen for further in vivo experiments. The antiinflammatory effect and a sustaining action of diclofenac diethylamine from the two transdermal patches selected were studied by inducing paw edema in rats with 1% w/v carrageenan solution. When the patches were applied half an hour before the subplantar injection of carrageenan in the hind paw of male Wistar rats, it was observed that formulation PA4 produced 100% inhibition of paw edema in rats 12 h after carrageenan insult, whereas in the case of formulation PA5, 4% mean paw edema was obtained half an hour after the carrageenan injection and the value became 19.23% 12 h after the carrageenan insult. The efficacy of transdermal patches was also compared with the marketed Voveran gel and it was found that PA4 transdermal patches produced a better result as compared with the Voveran gel. Hence, it can be reasonably concluded that diclofenac diethylamine can be formulated into the transdermal matrix type patches to sustain its release characteristics and the polymeric composition (PVP/EC, 1:2) was found to be the best choice for manufacturing transdermal patches of diclofenac diethylamine among the formulations studied.

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