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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;56(9):913-20.

Plasma glucose and insulin reduction after consumption of breads varying in amylose content.

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Diet and Human Performance Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.



Consumption of a meal high in amylose starch (70%) decreases peak insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC). The objective was to determine the amount of amylose necessary in a meal for the beneficial decrease in glucose or insulin to occur.


Twenty-five subjects, 13 men (averaging 88.1 kg, 41 y, and 27.9 body mass index) and 12 women (averaging 72.4 kg, 41 y and 27.1 body mass index) were given six tolerance tests in a Latin Square design: glucose alone (1 g glucose/kg body weight) and five breads (1 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) made with 70% amylose cornstarch, standard cornstarch (30% amylose), and blends of the two starches (40, 50 and 60% amylose starch). A standard menu was fed for 3 days. One subject withdrew from the study.


Glucose, insulin and glucagon response to the carbohydrate loads was similar in men and women. Peak glucose response was lowest after the breads containing 50-70% amylose starch. AUC was significantly higher after the glucose load than after all bread loads. The lowest AUCs occurred after the 60 and 70% amylose starch breads. Insulin response and AUC were significantly lower after the 60 and 70% amylose starch breads than after the glucose or the other breads.


Results indicate that the amylose content of the starch used in the acute meal needs to be greater than 50% to significantly reduce plasma glucose and insulin in men and women.

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