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Nat Rev Immunol. 2002 Sep;2(9):664-74.

Nf-kappa B, chemokine gene transcription and tumour growth.

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Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.


The constitutive expression of angiogenic and tumorigenic chemokines by tumour cells facilitates the growth of tumours. The transcription of these angiogenic and tumorigenic chemokine genes is modulated, in part, by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) family of transcription factors. In some tumours, there is constitutive activation of the kinases that modulate the activity of inhibitor of NF-kappa B (I kappa B) kinase (IKK), which leads to the constitutive activation of members of the NF-kappa B family. This activation of NF-kappa B is associated with the dysregulation of transcription of genes that encode cytokines, chemokines, adhesion factors and inhibitors of apoptosis. In this review, I discuss the factors that lie upstream of the NF-kappa B cascade that are activated during tumorigenesis and the role of the putative NF-kappa B enhanceosome in constitutive chemokine gene transcription during tumorigenesis.

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