Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Struct Funct. 2002 Apr;27(2):99-107.

Expression of selected apoptosis related genes, MIF, IGIF and TNF alpha, during retinoic acid-induced neural differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells.

Author information

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, 30602, USA.


Apoptosis plays an important role during embryonic development. Apoptotic cell death is executed by caspases and can be regulated by the Bcl-2 family of genes. Ribonuclease protection assay was used to investigate the expression of selected apoptosis-related genes of the Bcl-2 family, pro-apoptotic Bax, Bad and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, during differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (ES) mediated by all-trans-retinoic acid. The mRNA expression of caspase 3, caspase 6 and certain pro-inflammatory cytokines was also investigated simultaneously. ES cells exposed to 1 microM all-trans-retinoic acid on day 8, 9 and 10 of differentiation revealed increased expression of Bax and Bad compared to the vehicle-treated cells. No effect on Bcl-2 mRNA was noted after all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. Increased mRNA expression of caspase 3 and caspase 6 in all-trans-retinoic acid-exposed ES cells suggested that caspases play an important role in retinoic acid-mediated apoptosis during ES differentiation. Increase in the expression of TNF alpha and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was noted in retinoic acid-treated cells on day 14. Significant increase observed in interferon gamma inducing factor (IGIF/IL-18) mRNA expression in all-trans-retinoic acid-treated cells on day 14 and 17 did not translate to increased INF gamma expression. No change in the expression of other pro-inflammatory cytokines was noted with all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. The function of TNF alpha, IGIF/IL-18 and MIF in all-trans-retinoic acid-treated cells during ES differentiation and apoptosis is still speculatory. Results suggested that RA-mediated apoptosis during neural differentiation of ES cells involves up-regulation of caspase 3, caspase 6, Bad, and Bax.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic
Loading ...
Support Center