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Dev Dyn. 2002 Aug;224(4):373-80.

Craniofacial abnormalities resulting from targeted disruption of the murine Sim2 gene.

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Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.


Sim2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix PAS transcription factor gene family and is evolutionarily related to the Drosophila single-minded gene, a key regulator of central nervous system midline development. In an effort to determine the biological roles of Sim2 in mammalian development, we disrupted the murine Sim2 gene through gene targeting. Mice homozygous for the disrupted allele (Sim2 -/-) exhibit a cleft of the secondary palate and malformations of the tongue and pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone. These craniofacial malformations are the most probable cause of aerophagia (air swallowing with subsequent accumulation of air in the gastrointestinal tract) and postnatal death exhibited by Sim2 -/- mice. The developing palates of the Sim2 -/- mice are hypocellular, and at embryonic day 14.5 contain excess extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) compared with heterozygotes and homozygous wild-type littermates. HA plays an important role in the regulation and mechanics of palate development. Its premature accumulation in Sim2 -/- animal palates suggests a regulatory role for Sim2 in HA synthesis and in the establishment of craniofacial architecture.

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