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J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Sep;40(9):3432-7.

Serodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis by a combination of a commercial indirect hemagglutination test with Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigens and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with S. mansoni egg antigens.

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Department of Microbiology, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


A commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test using erythrocytes coated with Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigens (WA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA) were assessed for their use in serodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis (hereafter these tests are designated WA/IHA and SEA/ELISA, respectively). The sensitivity of the tests was evaluated with sera from 75 patients with proven S. mansoni infection, 25 with proven S. haematobium infection, and 10 with clinical Katayama fever. The specificity was assessed with sera from 283 patients with various parasitic, bacterial, viral, and fungal infections and sera containing autoimmune antibodies. Sensitivities of the WA/IHA with a cutoff titer of 1:160 (WA/IHA(160)) in detecting S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. mansoni and S. haematobium combined, and clinical Katayama fever were 88.0, 80.0, 86.0, and 70.0%, respectively, with a specificity of 98.9%. The WA/IHA with a cutoff of 1:80 (WA/IHA(80)) showed sensitivities of 94.7, 92.0, 94.0, and 90.0%, respectively, with a specificity of 94.7%. The comparable values of SEA/ELISA were 93.3, 92.0, 93.0, and 50.0%, respectively, with a specificity of 98.2%. Combined use of ELISA and WA/IHA(80) gave sensitivities of 100% for S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. mansoni and S. haematobium combined and 90% for Katayama fever. The specificity of this combination in detecting schistosomiasis was 92.9%. Combination of SEA/ELISA with WA/IHA(160) gave sensitivities of 98.7, 96.0, 98.0, and 80% with a specificity of 97.2%. Our findings suggest that WA/IHA and SEA/ELISA are each sensitive and specific serological tests that are easy to use for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. The combined use of these two tests enabled the serological diagnosis of schistosomiasis to be achieved with very high degrees of both sensitivity and specificity.

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