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Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;76(3):659-67.

Plasma cholecystokinin is associated with subjective measures of satiety in women.

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Department of Nutrition and the Division of Endocrinology, Clinical Nutrition, and Vascular Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.



Cholecystokinin is associated with satiety. Fat stimulates cholecystokinin release, and fiber appears to prolong cholecystokinin elevation during the alimentary period.


We tested whether adding fiber or fat to a low-fat, low-fiber meal increases cholecystokinin release and enhances subjective measures of satiety and whether the cholecystokinin response correlates with subjective measures of satiety.


Three isoenergetic breakfast meals were tested in a randomized crossover design: low fiber, low fat; high fiber, low fat; and low fiber, high fat. Blood samples were drawn from fasted subjects (7 men and 8 women) before and at different time points after test meal consumption for 6 h. Plasma was analyzed for cholecystokinin, insulin, glucose, and triacylglycerols. Visual analogue scales were used to assess subjects' hunger, desire to eat, fullness, and prospective consumption.


In the women, the meals higher in fiber or in fat resulted in greater feelings of satiety and in significantly higher cholecystokinin responses than did the low-fat, low-fiber meal. In the men, the increase in cholecystokinin concentration did not differ between meals, but the 2 low-fat meals elicited a greater feeling of satiety than did the high-fat meal. The insulin response was significantly higher for the low-fiber, low-fat meal than for the other 2 meals, and the triacylglycerol response was greatest for the high-fat, low-fiber meal.


In women, the feeling of satiety caused by cholecystokinin release is enhanced by increasing either the fiber or fat content of a low-fat, low-fiber meal.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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