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J Neurosci. 2002 Sep 1;22(17):7569-79.

Purinergic and muscarinic modulation of the cell cycle and calcium signaling in the chick retinal ventricular zone.

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Department of Physiology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.


Spontaneous calcium transients occur in the ventricular zone of the chick retina and result from the endogenous release of neurotransmitters in the absence of action potentials. Calcium transients resulting from the activation of purinergic and muscarinic receptors occur in a mixed population of interphase and mitotic cells, whereas those produced by ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptors are mostly restricted to the interphase population, the GABA responses primarily coming from cells that express the neuronal marker TuJ-1. Muscarinic and purinergic receptors can act respectively as a brake and an accelerator on mitosis, whereas GABA and glutamate receptors are without effect. Our results suggest that the balance between muscarinic and purinergic activation acts to control the rate of retinal proliferation in early development.

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