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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Sep 3;99(18):11790-5. Epub 2002 Aug 23.

Modulation of TCR-induced transcriptional profiles by ligation of CD28, ICOS, and CTLA-4 receptors.

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Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6160, USA.


Signals generated by T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 engagement are required for optimal T cell activation, but how these signals integrate within the cell is still largely unknown. We have used near genome-scale expression profiling to monitor T cell signal transduction pathways triggered via TCR and/or costimulatory receptors. Ligation of CD28 alone induced a set of short-lived early response transcripts in both Jurkat T cells and primary CD4 T cells, thus providing evidence that CD28 engagement can affect gene regulation independently of TCR engagement. Simultaneous signaling through both the TCR and CD28 resulted in altered expression of several thousand genes following several distinct temporal patterns. Most of these gene regulations were induced by TCR signaling alone and were augmented to varying degrees by CD28 costimulation. CD28 and ICOS costimulation had nearly identical effects on gene regulation, but a few transcripts (e.g., IL2, IL9) were significantly more affected by CD28. Therefore, the distinctive functional outcomes of costimulation via CD28 and ICOS are accompanied by relatively few distinct differences in gene expression. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) engagement selectively blocked augmentation of gene regulations by CD28-mediated costimulation, but did not ablate gene regulation induced by TCR triggering alone.

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