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Toxicol Lett. 2002 Aug 5;134(1-3):285-93.

Comparison of urinary bromide levels among people in East Asia, and the effects of dietary intakes of cereals and marine products.

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Osaka Occupational Health Service Center, Osaka, Japan.


Groups of people with no occupational exposure to Br-containing chemicals (29-54 year old, mostly women) in Japan, China and Korea, respectively, offered spot urine samples. Those in China and Korea offered 24 h duplicates of foods of the day. Urine samples were analyzed for Br by ECD-gas chromatography (ECD-GC) after derivatization to methyl bromide, and the Br-U was adjusted for a specific gravity of 1.016. Food intake data were based on national statistics and supplemented by the food duplicate data. Mean Br-U was 5.4 and 6.5 mg/l for Japanese men and women, respectively. Mean levels were in a range of 1.8-2.8 mg/l for four groups of Chinese, and 8-12 mg/l for the four groups of women in Korea. Br-U levels among Korean women were close levels reported for occupational exposure to 1- or 2-bromopropane, or methyl bromide. Regression analyses showed that Br-U levels were influenced by the intake of marine products (such as sea algae, sea fish and shellfish) and fruits, and inversely relate to intakes of cereals and potato.

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