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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002 Sep;93(3):1039-46.

Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes.

Author information

1
Centre for Biophysical and Clinical Research into Human Movement, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Alsager, Cheshire ST7 2HL, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The costs of walking (Cw) and running (Cr) were measured on 10 runners on a treadmill inclined between -0.45 to +0.45 at different speeds. The minimum Cw was 1.64 +/- 0.50 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at a 1.0 +/- 0.3 m/s speed on the level. It increased on positive slopes, attained 17.33 +/- 1.11 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at +0.45, and was reduced to 0.81 +/- 0.37 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at -0.10. At steeper slopes, it increased to reach 3.46 +/- 0.95 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at -0.45. Cr was 3.40 +/- 0.24 J. kg(-1). m(-1) on the level, independent of speed. It increased on positive slopes, attained 18.93 +/- 1.74 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at +0.45, and was reduced to 1.73 +/- 0.36 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at -0.20. At steeper slopes, it increased to reach 3.92 +/- 0.81 J. kg(-1). m(-1) at -0.45. The mechanical efficiencies of walking and running above +0.15 and below -0.15 attained those of concentric and eccentric muscular contraction, respectively. The optimum gradients for mountain paths approximated 0.20-0.30 for both gaits. Downhill, Cr was some 40% lower than reported in the literature for sedentary subjects. The estimated maximum running speeds on positive gradients corresponded to those adopted in uphill races; on negative gradients they were well above those attained in downhill competitions.

PMID:
12183501
DOI:
10.1152/japplphysiol.01177.2001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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