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Development. 2002 Sep;129(18):4281-9.

SUPERMAN attenuates positive INNER NO OUTER autoregulation to maintain polar development of Arabidopsis ovule outer integuments.

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Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.


The outer integument of Arabidopsis ovules exhibits marked polarity in its development, growing extensively from the abaxial side, but only to a very limited extent from the adaxial side of the ovule. Mutations in two genes affect this asymmetric growth. In strong inner no outer (ino) mutants outer integument growth is eliminated, whereas in superman (sup) mutants integument growth on the adaxial side is nearly equal to wild-type growth on the abaxial side. Through complementation and reporter gene analysis, a region of INO 5'-flanking sequences was identified that contains sufficient information for appropriate expression of INO. Using this INO promoter (P-INO) we show that INO acts as a positive regulator of transcription from P-INO, but is not sufficient for de novo initiation of transcription in other plant parts. Protein fusions demonstrate nuclear localization of INO, consistent with a proposed role as a transcription factor for this member of the YABBY protein family. Through its ability to inhibit expression of the endogenous INO gene and transgenes driven by P-INO, SUP is shown to be a negative regulator of INO transcription. Substitution of another YABBY protein coding region (CRABS CLAW) for INO overcomes this negative regulation, indicating that SUP suppresses INO transcription through attenuation of the INO positive autoregulatory loop.

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