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Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002 Apr;29(8):691-8.

Toxoplasmosis in bone marrow transplantation: a report of two cases and systematic review of the literature.

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Department of Haematology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK.


Toxoplasma infection represents a rare but often fatal complication in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. We report two cases of toxoplasmosis: one of successfully treated cerebral toxoplasmosis after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and a fatal case of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in a BMT recipient. We have systematically reviewed the 110 published cases of toxoplasmosis following BMT. We analyzed the pre-transplant and clinical features of BMT recipients developing toxoplasmosis, together with the diagnostic procedures used and treatment given. By univariate and multivariate statistical analysis we analyzed the risk factors for diagnosis (during life vs post-mortem) and Toxoplasma-related mortality. Ante-mortem diagnosis was made in 47% of cases. Site of infection (P = 0.02; odds ratio 10.8), presence of symptoms at onset (P = 0.01) and conditioning regimen (P = 0.04) were factors influencing whether the diagnosis was made before or after death. Overall mortality rate was 80% and that attributed to toxoplasmosis was 66%. Variables influencing outcome were: site of infection (P = 0.02; odds ratio 5.28), day of onset (P = 0.04) and conditioning regimen (P = 0.04). Underlying disease (P = 0.02; odds ratio 9.45), among patients diagnosed before death, was the most significant factor influencing outcome.

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