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J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Aug;102(8):1069-81.

Evaluation of a theory-based nutrition intervention for older adults with diabetes mellitus.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA. ckm105@psu.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate an intervention to improve food label knowledge and skills in diabetes management among older adults with diabetes mellitus.

DESIGN:

A randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used.

SUBJECTS/SETTING:

Participants (48 experimental, 50 control) were aged 65 years and older with type 2 diabetes for 1 year or longer; 93 participants (95%) completed the study, conducted in an outpatient setting.

INTERVENTION:

The intervention included 10 weekly group sessions led by a dietitian. Information processing, learning theory, and Social Cognitive Theory principles were used in program development and evaluation.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Participants' knowledge, outcome expectations (expected results of behavior), self-efficacy, and decision-making skills were assessed. Instrument validity and reliability were established before program evaluation.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED:

Factor analysis identified underlying factor structures. Analysis of covariance with pretest score as covariate was used to compare groups at posttest. Paired t tests compared results within groups.

RESULTS:

Two factors were identified for outcome expectations (positive and negative) and for self-efficacy (promoters of and barriers to diabetes management). The experimental group had greater improvement in total knowledge scores (mean +/- standard error of the mean: 7.8+/-0.7) than the control group (0.2+/-0.7) (P < .0001), positive outcome expectations (0.59+/-0.15 vs 0.06+/-0.15, P = .01), promoters of diabetes management (0.83+/-0.12 vs -0.09+/-0.18, P < or = .001) and decision-making skills (5.1+/-0.5 vs 0.3+/-0.5, P < .0001) and greater reduction in barriers to diabetes management (1.1+/-0.16 vs 0.34+/-0.16, P < .01). No significant difference in negative outcome expectations occurred between groups at posttest.

APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:

Older adults with diabetes can benefit from nutrition education designed to improve knowledge and skills necessary for diabetes management.

PMID:
12171451
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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