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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2002 Aug;124(2):340-51.

Myocardial protection with oxygenated esmolol cardioplegia during prolonged normothermic ischemia in the rat.

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1
Cardiac Surgical Research/Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Rayne Institute, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Trust, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We previously showed that arrest with multidose infusions of high-dose (1 mmol/L) esmolol (an ultra-short-acting beta-blocker) in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (esmolol cardioplegia) provided complete myocardial protection after 40 minutes of normothermic (37 degrees C) global ischemia in isolated rat hearts. In this study we investigated the importance of oxygenation for protection with esmolol cardioplegia, compared it with that of St Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia, and determined the protective efficacy of multidose esmolol cardioplegia for extended ischemic durations.

METHODS:

Isolated rat hearts (n = 6/group) were perfused in the Langendorff mode at constant pressure (75 mm Hg) with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer at 37 degrees C. The first part of the first study had four groups: (i) multidose (every 15 minutes) oxygenated (95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide) Krebs-Henseleit buffer during 60 minutes of global ischemia, (ii) multidose deoxygenated (95% nitrogen/5% carbon dioxide) Krebs-Henseleit buffer during 60 minutes of global ischemia, (iii) multidose oxygenated esmolol cardioplegia during 60 minutes of global ischemia, and (iv) multidose deoxygenated esmolol cardioplegia during 60 minutes of global ischemia. The second part of the first study had three groups: (v) multidose St Thomas' Hospital solution during 60 minutes of global ischemia, (vi) multidose oxygenated St Thomas' Hospital solution during 60 minutes of global ischemia, and (vii) multidose oxygenated esmolol cardioplegia during 60 minutes of global ischemia. In the second study, hearts were randomly assigned to 60, 75, 90, or 120 minutes of global ischemia and at each ischemic duration were subjected to multidose oxygenated constant flow or constant pressure infusion of (i) Krebs-Henseleit buffer (constant flow), (ii) Krebs-Henseleit buffer (constant pressure), (iii) esmolol cardioplegia (constant flow), or (iv) esmolol cardioplegia (constant pressure). All hearts were reperfused for 60 minutes, and recovery of function was measured.

RESULTS:

Multidose infusion of oxygenated esmolol cardioplegia completely protected the hearts (97% +/- 5%) after 60 minutes of 37 degrees C global ischemia. Deoxygenated esmolol cardioplegia was significantly less protective (45% +/- 8%). Oxygenation of St Thomas' Hospital solution did not alter its protective efficacy in this study (70% +/- 4% vs 69% +/- 7%). Infusion of esmolol cardioplegia at constant pressure provided complete protection for 60, 75, and 90 minutes (104% +/- 5%, 95% +/- 5%, and 95% +/- 3%, respectively), whereas protection with constant-flow esmolol cardioplegic infusion was significantly decreased at ischemic durations longer than 60 minutes. This decrease in efficacy of constant-flow esmolol cardioplegia was associated with increasing coronary perfusion pressure leading to myocardial injury.

CONCLUSIONS:

Oxygenation of esmolol cardioplegia (Krebs-Henseleit buffer plus 1.0 mmol/L esmolol) was essential for optimal myocardial protection. Multidose infusion of oxygenated esmolol cardioplegia provided good myocardial protection during extended periods of normothermic ischemia. Esmolol cardioplegia may provide an efficacious alternative to hyperkalemia.

PMID:
12167795
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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