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J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4925-33.

Effect of kilning on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of pale malts.

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  • 1School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, P.O. Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom.


Pale malts were prepared using standard and rapid kilning regimes that differed in the temperature and moisture profiles in the kiln. Samples were taken over the last 9 h of kilning, that is, at 18, 20, 22, 25, and 27 h. Antioxidant activity, assessed by redox potential, scavenging of the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS*+), and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), increased at moisture levels below 6.7% for both regimes. The 27 h malt exposed to the rapid regime (moisture content of 4.8%) had a higher activity than the 27 h standard regime sample (moisture content of 4.8%). None of the malts scavenged oxygen. Pro-oxidant activity profiles were different for the malts obtained using each regime and, at 27 h, the rapid procedure gave malt with higher activity. Levels of (+)-catechin and ferulic acid (the most abundant phenolic compounds identified) generally increased as the moisture content of malt fell below 6.7%. Differences in antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of the 27 h malts are partly attributed to the Maillard reaction, as evidenced by lower L* and higher b* values and higher levels of Maillard-derived flavor compounds, in the sample obtained by the rapid procedure. Levels of lipid-derived flavor compounds were significantly higher after 27 h of kilning using the rapid procedure.

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