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Development. 2002 Sep;129(17):3965-74.

Roles of PIN-FORMED1 and MONOPTEROS in pattern formation of the apical region of the Arabidopsis embryo.

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Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan.

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  • Development 2002 Oct;129(20):4877.


In dicotyledonous plants, the apical region of the embryo shifts from radial to bilateral symmetry as the two cotyledon primordia develop on opposite sides of the shoot meristem. To further elucidate the mechanisms regulating this patterning process, we analyzed functions of two Arabidopsis genes, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) and MONOPTEROS (MP), encoding a putative auxin efflux carrier and a transcription factor thought to mediate auxin signaling, respectively. The corresponding mutants show similar defects in apical patterning, including cotyledon fusion and dissymmetric organ positioning. Both mutations perturb the spatial expression patterns of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON1 (CUC1) and CUC2, which are redundantly required for cotyledon separation and meristem formation. During early embryogenesis, both CUC genes are affected differently: the area of CUC1 expression is expanded while that of CUC2 expression is reduced. In addition, genetic analysis indicates that PIN1 and MP are required for the activity of CUC2 while CUC1 activity is only slightly affected by both mutations. These results suggest a differential regulation of the CUC genes by PIN1 and MP. Furthermore, genetic analysis suggests that SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), another regulator for cotyledon separation and meristem formation, promotes CUC1 activity in parallel with PIN1. Our results suggest a model where PIN1 and MP regulate apical patterning partially through the control of CUC gene expression.

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