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Am J Pathol. 2002 Aug;161(2):575-85.

Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen expression as a marker of perivascular macrophages in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. kenneth_williams@hms.harvard.edu

Abstract

Brain perivascular macrophages are a major target of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques and HIV infection in humans. Perivascular macrophages are distinct from parenchymal microglia in their location, morphology, expression of myeloid markers, and turnover in the CNS. In contrast to parenchymal microglia, perivascular macrophages are continuously repopulated by blood monocytes, which undergo maturation to macrophages on entering the central nervous system (CNS). We studied differences in monocyte/macrophages in vivo that might account for preferential infection of perivascular macrophages by SIV. In situ hybridization for SIV and proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry demonstrated that SIV-infected and PCNA-positive cells were predominantly found in perivascular cuffs of viremic animals and in histopathological lesions that characterize SIV encephalitis (SIVE) in animals with AIDS. Multilabel techniques including double-label immunohistochemistry and combined in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed numerous infected perivascular macrophages that were PCNA-positive. Outside the CNS, SIV-infected, PCNA-expressing macrophage subpopulations were found in the small intestine and lung of animals with AIDS. While PCNA is used as a marker of cell proliferation it is also strongly expressed in non-dividing cells undergoing DNA synthesis and repair. Therefore, more specific markers for cell proliferation including Ki-67, topoisomerase IIalpha, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation were used which indicated that PCNA-positive cells within SIVE lesions were not proliferating. These observations are consistent with perivascular macrophages as terminally differentiated, non-dividing cells and underscores biological differences that could potentially define mechanisms of preferential, productive infection of perivascular macrophages in the rhesus macaque model of neuroAIDS. These studies suggest that within CNS and non-CNS tissues there exist subpopulations of macrophages that are SIV-infected and express PCNA.

PMID:
12163382
PMCID:
PMC1850726
DOI:
10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64213-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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