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Am J Pathol. 2002 Aug;161(2):399-403.

Promoter methylation status of E-cadherin, hMLH1, and p16 genes in nonneoplastic gastric epithelia.

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Department of Pathology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan.


Silencing of tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes by hypermethylation at promoter CpG islands is one of the major events in human tumorigenesis. Promoter methylation is also present in nonneoplastic cells as an age-related tissue-specific phenomenon that precedes the development of neoplasia. To clarify the significance of promoter methylation in nonneoplastic gastric epithelia as a precancerous signal, we investigated promoter methylation status of E-cadherin, hMLH1, and p16 genes in nonneoplastic cells of various organs obtained at autopsy, and compared the results with those of nonneoplastic epithelia of a cancerous stomach. Methylation of these genes was not seen in nonneoplastic cells of organs from people who were 22 years and younger (0%, 0 of 6). In contrast, E-cadherin and p16 were methylated in nonneoplastic gastric epithelia of persons who were 45 years or older. The numbers were 86% (12 of 14) and 29% (4 of 14), respectively. E-cadherin methylation occurred preferentially in the intestines, whereas p16 methylation was almost restricted to the stomach. For samples obtained from patients with stomach cancer, methylation was frequently observed in both neoplastic and corresponding nonneoplastic gastric epithelia: 47% (44 of 94) and 67% (63 of 94) for E-cadherin, 32% (30 of 94) and 24% (23 of 94) for hMLH1, and 22% (21 of 94) and 44% (41 of 94) for p16, respectively. hMLH1 methylation was not seen in nonneoplastic gastric epithelia from autopsy samples but occurred significantly in samples from nonneoplastic tissues of individuals with stomach cancer. Therefore, detection of hMLH1 methylation in nonneoplastic gastric epithelia may be useful for screening patients who may be at risk of developing gastric cancer.

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