Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Cardiol. 2002 Sep;85(1):111-21, discussion 121-4.

Neurohormonal factors in the development of catabolic/anabolic imbalance and cachexia.

Author information

Division of Cardiology, Fondation pour Recherches M├ędicales, 64 Ave. de la Roseraie, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.


Mechanisms that lead to cachexia are still poorly understood. The neurohormonal changes that occur in severe disease states may cause an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation at the cellular level, followed by muscle wasting. Here, we review actions of angiotensin II, TNF-alpha, corticosteroids, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and the IGF binding proteins, factors that may each contribute to the metabolic imbalance. The complex endocrine, autocrine and intracellular interactions between these factors will be described with examples from patient, rat and cell culture studies. Moreover, some of the data supporting that each of these hormones may directly affect cellular protein degradation mechanisms will be reviewed. Knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms will facilitate the development of new pharmaceutical strategies to treat cachexia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center