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J Commun Disord. 2002 Jul-Aug;35(4):347-54.

Diversity in voice characteristics--interaction between genes and environment, use of microarray analysis.

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Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84132, USA.


Genetic information is used by the cells to make proteins. These proteins are then used to perform cellular and tissue functions. This process is briefly reviewed. Research to identify genes and their expression patterns is a fruitful field in the area of voice disorders. Gene expression studies of vocal lesions illustrates why this type of research is important. The role of microarray analysis (MA) to find genes of interest is discussed. Gene expression may be influenced by various environmental factors. This interaction between environment and genes is constantly manifested in many vocal characteristics and disorders. Since the end result of the gene-environment interaction is the production of cellular and tissue proteins, the field of proteomics is relevant to voice disorders. Some voice disorders have been treated successfully through using proteomic approaches.


(a) Understand the factors that influence genetic expression; (b) display a knowledge of why the study of proteins is important to understand voice characteristics; (c) become familiar with MA, a powerful tool for the study of gene expression; and (d) describe the interaction between genes and environment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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