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Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Jul 1;36(13):2884-8.

Influence of chloride and metals on silver bioavailability to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) yolk-sac fry.

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King's College London, Division of Life Sciences, UK.


The effects of differing water chloride concentrations (0-10 mM) or competing metals [Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Pb(II), Co(II) (1-10,000 nM)] on Ag(I) uptake in yolk-sac fry of two salmonid species, the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were studied. None of the metals tested were strong competitors of Atlantic salmon yolk-sac fry whole body Ag(I) influx. Inhibition of Ag(I) influx was only seen with a 100-fold excess of Cu(II) or Cd(II) or a 1000-fold excess of Pb(II) or Co(II). At these concentrations, the degree of competition appears to be directly proportional to the conditional stability constant of the competing metal to the gill (metal-gill log K). The range of [Cl-] allowed an assessment of Ag+, AgCl(aq), and AgCl2- bioavailability. The pattern of Ag(I) uptake was similar for each fish species. At <1 mM Cl-, where the [Ag+] dominates, the Ag(I) accumulation rate was constant. Above 1 mM Cl-, where the [AgCl(aq)] is dominant and the [AgCl2-] increases, there was a decline in Ag(I) uptake rate. However, even when very little Ag+ was present (i.e., at 10 mM Cl-) Ag(I) accumulated, albeit at a lower rate. This was suggestive of passive influx by AgCl(aq) and indicated little or no entry of negatively charged silver chloride complexes. The decline in Ag(I) uptake above 1 mM Cl- demonstrated that, if Ag(I) was present as both Ag+ and AgCl(aq), salmonid Ag(I) accumulation was dominated by Ag+ uptake. Therefore, the order of bioavailability of the Ag(I) species was determined as Ag+ > AgCl(aq) >>> AgCl2-.

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