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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Jul;22(7):774-9.

Tricarboxylic acid cycle substrates prevent PARP-mediated death of neurons and astrocytes.

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1
Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA.

Abstract

The DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1), contributes to cell death during ischemia/reperfusion when extensively activated by DNA damage. The cell death resulting from PARP1 activation is linked to NAD+ depletion and energy failure, but the intervening steps are not well understood. Because glycolysis requires cytosolic NAD+, the authors tested whether PARP1 activation impairs glycolytic flux and whether substrates that bypass glycolysis can rescue cells after PARP1 activation. PARP1 was activated in mouse cortical astrocyte and astrocyte-neuron cocultures with the DNA alkylating agent, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Studies using the 2-deoxyglucose method confirmed that glycolytic flux was reduced by more than 90% in MNNG-treated cultures. The addition of 5 mmol/L of alpha-ketoglutarate, 5 mmol/L pyruvate, or other mitochondrial substrates to the cultures after MNNG treatment reduced cell death from approximately 70% to near basal levels, while PARP inhibitors and excess glucose had negligible effects. The mitochondrial substrates significantly reduced cell death, with delivery delayed up to 2 hours after MNNG washout. The findings suggest that impaired glycolytic flux is an important factor contributing to PARP1-mediated cell death. Delivery of alternative substrates may be a promising strategy for delayed treatment of PARP1-mediated cell death in ischemia and other disorders.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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