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Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003;43:47-72. Epub 2002 Jan 10.

Retinoid receptors and their coregulators.

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Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.


Retinoids regulate gene transcription by binding to the nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARs), and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). RARs and RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors for the regulation of RA-responsive genes. The actions of RARs and RXRs on gene transcription require a highly coordinated interaction with a large number of coactivators and corepressors. This review focuses on our current understanding of these coregulators known to act in concert with RARs and RXRs. The mechanisms of action of these coregulators are beginning to be uncovered and include the modification of chromatin and the recruitment of basal transcription factors. Challenges remain to understand the specificity of action of RARs and RXRs and the formation of specific transcription complexes consisting of the receptors, coregulators, and other unknown factors.

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