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Dev Neuropsychol. 2002;21(2):141-55.

Math and numeracy in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus.

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Department of Psychology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


The developmental stability of poor math skill was studied in 31 young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH), a neurodevelopmental disorder involving malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Longitudinally, individuals with poor math problem solving as children grew into adults with poor problem solving and limited functional numeracy. As a group, young adults with SBH had poor computation accuracy, computation speed, problem solving, a ndfunctional numeracy. Computation accuracy was related to a supporting cognitive system (working memory for numbers), and functional numeracy was related to one medical history variable (number of lifetime shunt revisions). Adult functional numeracy, but not functional literacy, was predictive of higher levels of social, personal, and community independence.

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