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Fungal Genet Biol. 2002 Aug;36(3):187-98.

An osmosensing histidine kinase mediates dicarboximide fungicide resistance in Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea).

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Plant Health and Development Group, The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd., Private Bag 92 169, Auckland, New Zealand.


A two-component histidine protein kinase gene, homologous to os-1 from Neurospora crassa, was cloned and sequenced from a single ascospore isolate of Botryotinia fuckeliana. A series of nine spontaneous mutants resistant to dicarboximide fungicides was selected from this strain and characterized with respect to fungicide resistance and osmotic sensitivity. Genetic crosses of the mutants with an authentic Daf1 strain showed that the phenotypes mapped to this locus. Single point mutations (seven transitions, one transversion, and one short deletion) were detected in the alleles of the nine mutants sequenced. The mutational changes were shown to cosegregate with the dicarboximide resistance and osmotic sensitivity phenotypes in progeny obtained from crossing selected resistant strains with a sensitive strain. All mutations detected are predicted to result in amino acid changes in the coiled-coil region of the putative Daf1 histidine kinase, and it is proposed that dicarboximide fungicides target this domain.

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