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Blood Rev. 2002 Jun;16(2):97-110.

Factor X deficiency.

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Haemophilia Centre and Haemostasis Unit, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.


Factor X is one of the vitamin K-dependent serine proteases. It plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, as the first enzyme in the common pathway of thrombus formation. The gene for factor X maps to the long arm of chromosome 13, approximately 2.8 kb downstream of the factor VII gene. The gene consists of eight exons, each of which encodes a specific functional domain within the protein. Both the gene structure and the amino acid sequence show homology to other vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, suggesting their origin in a common ancestral protein. Factor X deficiency is one of the rarest of the inherited coagulation disorders. Inheritance is in an autosomal recessive manner. The clinical phenotype is of a variable bleeding tendency. Homozygous factor X deficiency has an incidence of 1:1,000,000 in the general population. Heterozygotes are often clinically asymptomatic. Acquired factor X deficiency is rare, but when it occurs it is usually in association with amyloidosis. Treatment of factor X deficiency involves replacement of the protein with either fresh frozen plasma or prothrombin complex concentrates, although the latter should be used with caution as infusion may be associated with an increased risk of thrombosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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