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Psychiatry Res. 2002 Jul 31;110(3):291-9.

Cross-cultural validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Japan.

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Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kawasumi 1, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-Ku, Nagoya, Japan, 467-8601.


The Beck Depression Inventory has undergone substantial revision recently as the BDI-II to correspond to DSM-IV criteria. We developed the Japanese version of the BDI-II and examined its psychometric properties. The linguistic equivalence was verified by a back-translation method. The final translation was administered to the visitors at a public health care center, and the responses of 766 adults (age = 24-82 years, women = 40%) were analyzed. Half of the participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) as well. A high level of internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87) and item homogeneity was confirmed. Exploratory factor analysis showed a two-factor structure (cognitive and somatic-affective), which was almost identical to the original model demonstrated by Beck et al. (1996, Manual for the Beck Depression Inventor Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX, USA). The following confirmatory factor analysis also supported the two-factor structure. Adequate correlation (r = 0.69, P < 0.001) between the total score of the BDI-II and that of the CES-D was observed. A higher score for women compared to men, without significant age differences, was consistent with the results of previous reports. We conclude that the Japanese version of the BDI-II is psychometrically robust and can be used to assess depressive symptoms in Japanese people.

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