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JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):334-41.

Menopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of ovarian cancer.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Blvd, MSC 7234, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. jimlacey@nih.gov

Erratum in

  • JAMA 2002 Nov 27;288(20):2544.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

The association between menopausal hormone replacement therapy and ovarian cancer is unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether hormone replacement therapy using estrogen only, estrogen-progestin only, or both estrogen only and estrogen-progestin increases ovarian cancer risk.

DESIGN:

A 1979-1998 cohort study of former participants in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, a nationwide breast cancer screening program.

SETTING:

Twenty-nine US clinical centers.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 44 241 postmenopausal women (mean age at start of follow-up, 56.6 years).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Incident ovarian cancer.

RESULTS:

We identified 329 women who developed ovarian cancer during follow-up. In time-dependent analyses adjusted for age, menopause type, and oral contraceptive use, ever use of estrogen only was significantly associated with ovarian cancer (rate ratio [RR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0). Increasing duration of estrogen-only use was significantly associated with ovarian cancer: RRs for 10 to 19 years and 20 or more years were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1-3.0) and 3.2 (95% CI, 1.7-5.7), respectively (P value for trend <.001), and we observed a 7% (95% CI, 2%-13%) increase in RR per year of use. We observed significantly elevated RRs with increasing duration of estrogen-only use across all strata of other ovarian cancer risk factors, including women with hysterectomy. The RR for estrogen-progestin use after prior estrogen-only use was 1.5 (95% CI, 0.91-2.4), but the RR for estrogen-progestin-only use was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.64-1.7). The RRs for less than 2 years and 2 or more years of estrogen-progestin-only use were 1.6 (95% CI, 0.78-3.3) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.35-1.8), respectively, and there was no evidence of a duration response (P value for trend =.30).

CONCLUSION:

Women who used estrogen-only replacement therapy, particularly for 10 or more years, were at significantly increased risk of ovarian cancer in this study. Women who used short-term estrogen-progestin-only replacement therapy were not at increased risk, but risk associated with short-term and longer-term estrogen-progestin replacement therapy warrants further investigation.

PMID:
12117398
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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